ความเข้าใจ "พญานาค" ที่แท้จริงในธรรม


ФҶҾ;ҹҤ

Ч ( )

١͹ͺѡк٪ ;ҹҤ ¨Եѷ Ź ͧ 觹§٪ǻЪ

Ѵ ١͵駨Ե͸ɰҹ кӺѴء اآǻЪ

Ѵ ١͹¢ͧ٪ (ͧ͢...) ͧôѺ Тͺͧ ôһзҹ ١ԭµͧ;ҹҤ դҡþ դʴ ԡҹ վѧó آѹ آѹ ѹآ




ҹҤԧ

ҹҤըԧҧ ǾҹҤԧҧ Т͸ԺµӴѺѧ

Թѧ ҹҤҧ駡繤 ҧ駡繧 ҧ駡繾ѧ ҧ ѺҵͧԴٻͧҾҹҤ ФҵԴٻ Ҩ˹ ͧٻ ;ҹҤͧ蹹 ҧ ҧ١ͧ

ҹ 繸ʺѴҡͧ ҡ 觷¡ ""

ҽ¡ Ǵ (Wind) ҡ§ѹǻѡǻ ԧѹǡѹ 繾ѧ ҹҤ繾ѧ èԴç˹ҡѹ ԧ ҹҤ繾ѧ㹸 ѧ觤ԭ ôŹ ͧ

ҹҤ˧͹ 价ԹҾҹҤẺ˧͹ ҤͧԹ¡ͧ

ҹҤ֧ͧ˧͹ ǤԴҧµѹ͡§ ᶺ⢧Ѻ;ҹҤẺ˧͹

ѺٻҹҤҴ ҡ繾ҹҤ ¹ӷҤԴ 繨Թ ¹վҹҤ ͺ "" վѧͧâѺ͹ç վѧѺ͹Ө

ҹ Ѻ͹ ç֧ ç٧ Դ šԴѧ ѧѹٻ ͤ繨¡ѧ䧴 ¡ "ҹҤ" Ҿѧç¡

Һ͡ ѧ ѧ ҡͧ ҡͧ駪 Ẻ 件֧ѡ ʹ ͹ѷ Ᾱ ҡѹ Ѵਹ

ҹҤ繪ͤ駢 "ѧ" 繢ͧ

ءҧ繸 ͧ;Թ ͧ;ҧ ᢡҺͧ͡ 繾;˹Ǵ о;ͧ

ѧ繾ѧǡѹ ŧԴٻѡɳ 㨶֧ѧ ҡ¹ §ѹ診

ѧҹҤ 繾ѧ§ԭԺⵢ ѧࡵҡҧҹŧͧҳŨеͧҧѺ ֧ԭͧ Ի еѺ (Nile)

ԴҡǢͧ˭ ¤ Ӻ (Blue Nile) ҡ͸ Ƿ (White Nile) ҡdzͿԡҵѹ͡ ǡѹ㹻ȫٴҹ ҡżҹԻ ŧ¹

繾ѧҹҤзҧȵçԭͧ §ԭͧ

Ȩչ§§(揚子江) өҧ§(長江)ӷǷش㹷ջ ӷѹѺ ͧš ͧҡ㹷ջͿԡ͹㹷ջԡ § , õ鹹Ūԧзີ 㹷ȵѹͧҸóѰЪҪչ ҷҧȵѹ͡ ͡Ũչѹ͡

¡Ҿ ⢧ 繵

ҹҤѺ褧͹ѹ͵ҧѹҧ?

褧ҡѺ;ҹҤդᵡҧѹ Ө繢ͧ褧 кèѴùӹ˹ҷͧҹҤ ͨоٴ ҹҤ͸ԺաѾҡù ӺҴ 繢ͧ褧 褧ͺ˹ҷ龭ҹҤҴŹӢͧš

褧ҡʴŧǡѺǡѹ Ңͧ觹ӷ ͧ;ҹҤ繼黯Ժѵԧҹ ͹Ѻó վó繼黯Ժѵԧҹ ͧվ 繻иҹ иҹк͡ҩѹ 繻иҹͧŹӷ ҷҹͺ;ҹҤ

繻иҹúѷ ͧռѴ ¡繼Ѵ·١ͺ价˹ҷ 仨Ѵ ͧҷиҹѺ

áͧ¹ Ҷ索ͧҤ 仴ٻҹҤ͡͹Ѻ¹ ѧá͹ѹ ѹ ͧ

ҺҧԻѭ֡ дٻ Ҷ֧ѧ 繹

͡ҡԵԢͧѧ͡ٻ ҡͧ繾ѧٻҹҤ ͺ
鹾ҹҤ͹ 鹨ҡѧ͹ Իѭ٧Ҷ֧ҹҤ繾ҹҤ 餹ԻѭҷҧӨѺ繾ѧШѺ١ ʾѧҹҤ ѧԵ ѧ շԻѭ٧ ҹԴ繹Ե ԵçͨԹ (Թҡ) 繡е͡͹ ٻ͡Ѻ 餹Ҷ֧ҹҤ¢ ٻͧ쾭ҹҤ Դ§繾ѧ Եӡѧ ѧ䧡 ҹҤ

ǡ˹ҤءաѺǴ ʶҹ˹ ҡШԹ繾ҹҤ ҧչҡ繾ѧͧѧ

ҧҶ֧Թ ҧ駡ѹ繾ҹҤ ҹҤҨԧ ԹҾԹٻ

͹Ѻҹ ѾͶ ٻҧٻç׹ ҧ ҡԴẺ Ͷ蹹 ٻѡɳ ͧԴẺ ФԴ˹͢ҧ ҼҧٻẺ ѾͶ͡͹硹Դ ѨغѹѲҢ˭ ١Т ҴͶ͡份ѹ 令Դ ٻҾͧ ͧͧҷҾ

աҧ˹ դٺҨ·ŧͧҴҧ ҹŧͧҴԴҡèԹ ҨԵͧҹͧҴŷԹй Ƿҹŧ仨ԧ

ٺҨдѺѧ觤ٻ ѧش͡ҡ觷ٻ 令ԴǧǨ件֧ç зҹѧšٻ
ա˵ءó˹觷;ҹҤ 繡ҧ͹ѹ ҡѧٻ ٻͧǴ Ԣͧҷ任ا觢 Ҩеͧ¡͡ŧ ŧҨзСѹ診 ѹ觹Եا 繾ѧҧ 㹸 ѧ㹸дç ٻ¹ ¹仵Ǵ ˵ػѨ ˵ؤ

Ԣͧ ҹҤеͧҧ 任Թ¾ҹҤҧ 繧 仴ٻȨչѧ 仴٢ͧ觡ջա ٻͧԵԹ ԹТͧٻ ԵԹТͧѧ ѧѧդ֡˹Һҧ

俾ҹҤԴҡ ԴҡԵԹ ǹѡԷʵ䫵ͧѴ͹Ź
㹨ѧѴ˹ͧ աԴҡóҴ١ժپ觢˹ӹ⢧ дѺ - Ǿ觢ҡ٧ҳ - һҳ - Թҷ ա դѹ § Ǻҹ¡ 俼 俾ҹҤ ¨Դ ҹ 㹪ǧѹ͡ ͹

ҡҹԨ·ҧԷʵͧ©Ѻػ 俾ҹҤ ҫ෹-ਹ ԴҡѹҧẤ·跹͡ਹ ֡ͧ⢧觹Ӣҧ§ . - . ˹觷ԹŹ ͷ·ͧ⢧ дѺӢҴسӡ ͧ (ҳ͡ਹ)

駹ѹԴҡó俾ҹҤ ѹʧᴴͧŧ㹪ǧһҳ , ԡ سҡ ͧʷդ͹ҡͷԹ Шաҫ෹ҡѡҡ - ҡСԴѹҪ㹼Ƿ·ҫش͡о觢鹹

ͧҫ˹͹Ӻҧǹп駡Ш͡ ǹ᡹㹢ͧҫҴͨо觢٧зѺ͡ਹ ѺسԷŴŧͧ׹Դ˵ءóԴѹһҧǴǨԴ ѧ鹴ǧҡշҾ繨ᴧӾѹ (ͧ)

駹ǧҷԴ俾ҹҤ͹չҤ ¹ Ҥ ѹ¹ еҤ š⤨ǧҷԵҡشѧŵҳ٧зǧѧšҡ ǡѹ¡ᶺٹٵ÷öѺʧҷԵҡ

ͧҡšعͺͧ᡹§ . ͧ ѺǧҷԵաšҡҧ׹ͧȷҧеԨٴ - ͧ˹ͧ ҧҡçͧçǧͧǧѹ š дǧҷԵԹ ͧѹ ͹ѹ¹,Ҥ,¹ оҤ ջҡó¤֧ѹԴ»㹪ǧҴѧ

觷觢ҹ繾ѧ չԵԹ йԵԹ繾ҹҤ蹾觢Ҩҡ¹
١俨еͧ觢鹵çѺѹ͡ 㹤׹͡ਹ ҫԴ٧شͺ 觡ԴҡԷԾŢͧçǧѧҹѧբͧǧҷԵ ǧѹš Тͧ

觸 ҧա١ҡ ҧաչ ͹ء ҧաա˹ ҧç ͹ѺШѹ Ͷ֧Сǧ ҧѹѹҧѹ ͧ鹡ѺǴͧ Ҷ֧оШѹҧѹǧ

ҧǧͷҹä蹹 Ҩ§äͧʵ еͧ§äͧ ͧѹ §ѹͧѧ診 áŢͧ觪شᴧ 觨٧ູ ͧչ͡աẺ˹ 繡 §駡ѹ診 ҵͧ¡ҹ繹ԵԹ ѧšͧٻ ѧšͧ ѧҧ 㹷ش 繾ѧ觸 ҵͧ¡ç Ҩ㨷 ͧ ҨѴ駡ѹ Ҩҡ˹

ҹҤ˧͹ Ҩҡʵѧ еͧҨҡç ٻͧ觹 㹾ѧ͹ѹ

ҧä 繾ѧ ҧ繾Թҧѳ Թͧҧ ͧչ¹ͧ ҧ 繾ѧǡѹ 繹ԵԹ Ǵ 誹ҵԢͧ Ǵ͹ѹ

ԻѭҶ֧ѧ Ѳѧ觾ҹҤ͡ٻ ͧͧ蹢ͧ շѺͧ 觷Ѻͧ öçѷ

Һ͡繾ѧ ա˹ ШѺͧҧͧ͢ ԹТͧ͹ ٻҾ ٻ ͧҨѺͧ ҡ㨧 繴µ

Ƿ;ҹҤͧ 蹹 繻ȹҸ ҹҤշ駷ҧҹź (-) дҹǡ (+) ոҵط 㹵 繸ҵ 蹹 繸ҵع ԹԹҡ繸ҵ ͵Ǣͧҹ繸ҵشԹ ѧ䧸ҵط ͧ쾭ҹҤ
оѧ˹Ҹҵط 㹹 §ҵ˹繻иҹ ҧóոҵ繻иҹ ҧó件֧ç鹨§ҵع繻иҹ

ҡԹ ж ҡҡ繹ӻҡ 繹ӷ еͧʹ͹ ҡ֡ҵͧ㴼Դ ҹҤŧ С繤͹ طó觵ҧ ͧ ѹԹ ¸ҵԵçԹ ӡз طóТͧ

ҧШѴ͡ٻ繡ԡ 餹ִ
ҹ ʴҨеͧüԴ ١ҹҤ ҡеͧӹ֡Դ ˹ҼԴҡҢ ա ҹšõҧ

㹻ѵʵͨչ Թ͹ӷԹ ѡþô ѵ ҪҼ黡ͧա仺ǧǧ͡ǿҴԹ ʴüԴ Ҷҡѵ繼 ͹Ѻ繾ͧ͢ ١ͧ

úǧǧǨ齹 ͺ Դ ˹觢ҴŹ ҴŹѧ Դ˵ Դ蹹 úǧǧ繡ǹҴͧ
ҹٻ 觷仹繵ǨԵ 繵Ǿѧ ǹ ͹١ ٻŵ 繢ͧѹ Ե繹 繺

Ҩѧࡵҡҧ ҨԵ֡ ˹ҡԺ ˹Һҧͧ 㹨Եͧʹ ШԵ繹 繺

úǧǧ繡ҧԵԭҳ ͷҧԵ жҢҧ㹵Ǿѧ ١ͧ ҧ͡ж١ͧ

¡ҧ ҧҹѺ ѺͨԵաҧ˹ ͧ ҺǧǧءѺҹѺ Եѷҵç ҧ㹡Դ š觼ٻ ҹ͸Ժ §ҹ֡ ͧ繤ԻѭҶ֧֧͸Ժ ж٧ ѧҧҨШѺͧ Ե´ ӹҭͧԵ ҡѺͧ ͧ͡ ֧ ԧ ѹѹ

ҵͧͧ෾ǴҺ

Ƿҵͧͧ෾ ǴҺ Ҩ繡͹ ҹԻѭҢͧѧçдçѡ Ҩеͧ 繡͹ 繡 طó 繡觷 ѧ͹ͧ

ҨҶ֧ ͧҴԹ ҴԹ繡Ҷ֧ ǡԻѭ٧ Ҷ֧ҡҶ֧ ҧҧ ͧӾҼѧ֧ ѧ Һ ͹Ѻѹ ö觢ŧ ҡ繵ͧ仨ѺǺѹ ͹Ѻǧͷҹ˹觷ҹ觢鹺ѹͧǺѹ ١ͧҹ觢鹺ѹѺ ١ͧѺǺѹ䴢 ء͹ѺҨ Ҩҹç ӹҭ ѧԹ鹺ѹѧӹҭ§ ҡͧѺǺѹ й ҡѺǺѹ仡繨µç˹ Ͷ֧ҡǺѹǡԹǢ仺ѹҧʺ

Ƿ繾ҹҤ餹ҧ ԵԹ͡ վҹҤµҧ աϡ ͹Ѻ͡ ͧա оطҷͧ͸Ժ´͡ ҨѴٻҡ ѷҡ ԴդͺǢ ͹ѺҾҹҤººѺ ͧդͺ դͺǡ֡ ҡ ҧͺҹҤ ͺҹҤբǡҺ ҧͺҹҤǡ ǹ龭ҹҤͧմӴ êͺ 任鹵觢

ҧ ¾ҹҤ觡ѹ ԴѴਹٻҡ

ҹҤ͡ С˭

. Сٻѡ ҹҤСշͧ
. Сһ ҹҤС
. СũѾһص ҹҤС
. Сšѳ⤵ ҹҤСմ


ҹҤ觻Դ Ẻ ѧ
. Ẻͻҵԡ Դ⵷ѹ
. Ẻѧʷ Դҡ˧ ѡ
. ẺҾت Դҡ
. Ẻѳ Դҡͧ

ҹҤ觻˹ҷ Ӿǡ˭ ѧ
. Ҥҧ ˹ҷ齹Ҥä
. ҤšҴ ˹ҷѡӤͧ
. Ҥ ˹ҷѡҢѾ
. Ҥ ˹ҷҹ෾ Ǵ

ṡѧͧҹҤҧ աѵ컡ͧ ͧ ѧ
. ͹ѹҤҪ
. بԹҤҪ
. تҤҪ
. ط⸹ҤҪ
. ѵҤҪ
. ྪѷùҤҪ ;ǹҤҪ
. ҹҤʹԨѹҹҤҪ
. ѹҤҪ
. ҤõҹҤҪ

ҧҧçҹҤҹ ͧ͡ҷç˹ ç㹹ԵԹ ҧçչԵԹ蹹ҡçԵç ٻç ¡ ԧ ԵçԷ 㨶֧ҧ 㨶֧㹸 Ҩҹѹ͹Ԩѧ ҹ Ѩغѹҵͧç ҡ¹ԵԹѹ觷ִ˹ óТͧ

¹ҨԹеç繾ҹҤ աҧç˹价çѧúԹ ҧçԹзҧʵѧúԹջա Ҩеͧ㨤 "ԵԹ"

"Թ" Թҡ

"Ե" ǹҨ͹

繵ç ҹԵ繡кͧ Ҩ͹繡кͧ ҡШԹе кͧ ѧ ҧٻ ҧըԹ͹ѹ 繢 仨֧ش

ѹ͹ѹٻ 繢 仨֧٧ش

ҹҨԹ ;ѳ 任Թ¡蹹 Ҿ;ͧçҧ¹ 㹾ѧաҧ˹

ҵͧ¡ҧšصСѺš ٻҧѧԷš šصͧ价ҧ ǡ繢 件֧٧šص

ѧ٧еͧҨҡšТ ٻ͹ѹ ٻҡšТ 㹷شš šصǡ

ҡеͧҡٻ͹ Ǥ Ң šص ͹Ѻâ鹺ѹҡеͧ鹢鹷˹觡͹ Ң仡ͧǺѹѺ ҨѺç ӹҭ ҡ ҡԹ Ǻѹ Դ ҡç ¡ҵԴ

Ҩѧ ͹÷лǺѹ ҷ ͧҧ "ԻѭҤ" Ԥ º͹ Ҷ¹ ҺҨش¹ʧҧ ҡ ҧ˹աͧ˹ ¹ ʧҧ ç¹ҧ٧ Һ㴶Ҩشҧ ҧ麤״ѵѵ Һʧҧ ״᷹ ѵѵ㹸

ҧҽ֡ Ҷҡöͺ ͸Ժҧ˵ؼ ҧçҷçҧ ҡҷҷҧ ҡö͸Ժ ҧҧͧ ҡͧç ҡͧ͡ ҨТ仡ͧǺѹ䴹 ִ ֧˹ҷͧ ٺҨ ͧҡҧҧ͹駹

ԵԹٻ ҵͧ١ ¡١ҡö͸Ժ

šصøٻ ٻç öٻҡҨҡ˹ ¹ҡšصùѧ

ҧԴ Ҩҡ˹

¡ҧšصٻ§šصù ; ٻ Ǩٻҧ繾ѧͧ; Ҩҡ˹ § ش͡ҡٻ ٻ˹Ǵ ˹ҡ §ѹ 繾; ;ͧ ˹ §ѹ ѹ鹡; ;ͧ ˹ §ѹѡ ٻ͹ѹ еç ٻͧšصй ˹ ˹ҡ ˹Ҿ;˹Ǵ ˹Ǵ ش͡ҡٻ ҧеԴѺٻ ǤԴҾеͧ˹ѧ ;˹ѧ͡͡ ҧ

šй ͧ㨨ҡͧҧ͹ Ǵǵͧ ٻ ǴǨ ǴçͧǴ Ǵ¨ ǴҸ Ǥ Ң

ҧѺٻͧ; ͹ѺҳҴǨҧ Ǩվѧ ͧҡҳŨеͧդʴͧ; 仢Ѵ駡з餹Ѻҡ ѧҡ ¡ҧ ͹еͧ ͹ 仡ФԴѧ ١ͧ͹ ҵͧ仴׺ Ѳ ٻẺ վĵԡ ըԵ طó աҡ

͹ѺѾ üԴ͵˹觵ǡҤͧԴ

ҹҤѺҤر֧١ѹ 繨Թٻ ººҧ 㹸ҵҧ СԹ ҡҨԹҾѧ ҧжǧšѹ աöǧ 㴵˹觡Թ¸ 㹸˹˹ǵͧյǶǧ Ҵçվѧͧ觷 § ѨšТͧ ǨԴѹ

ҹҤ繾ѧԴԭ͡ ҧ ôӷʴ Թ仡ԡҹ ԹӢҧ㹹ӡոҵâͧ ÷Ѻת ö觵ҳҡ;ת ҡԡԾ ҹء ѧ

. ҵѡ (primary macronutrients) ਹ (N), ʿ (P), (K)

. ҵͧ (secondary macronutrients) (Ca), (Mg), (жѹ) (S)

. ҵ (micronutrients) ҹ (Mn),ͻ (ͧᴧ) (Cu), չ (Cl), () (Fe), ͹ (B), ԧ (ѧ) (Zn), ԺԹ (Mo)

͹Ѻ һԴ١ Դ ͡ҡеͧ ǷժԵ 㨷Ҩ ҧ㨹 ٹ¹Էʵšдʵ ͸Ժ


ͧСͺѡͧҡ

. ਹ (N2) Դ鹨ҡµǢͧҵ͡š ÷ ÷ ਹѵӻԡաѺ еǢͧѹ¡͡ҨͧСͺͧ ÷ պҷӤѭժԵ

. ͡ਹ (O2) 繼żԵҡѧʧͧת ŧ͹ת ʷͧ㹡÷ӻԡҡѺ Ъ俵Դ һҳͧ͡ਹҡҡ % š駴ǧءԴ ѧ鹸ҵԨ֧ѲҡѵԹת ͤǺҳͧ͡ਹ㹺ҡ

. ͹ (Ar) ӻԡҡѺҵ Դ鹨ҡµ (ҡѹҾѧ) ͧҵš

. ͹͡䫴 (CO2) ʷ㹺ҡ ӽоת֧͹͡䫴ŧҺ鹴Թ Ѩغѹջҳ㹺ҡ§ .% դӤѭժԵءԴͧҡ âͧתǧ١ зšͺ

ͧСͺѹâͧҡ

͡ҡʵҧ ͧСͺѡջҳ ѧͧСͺ ջҳѹ Ѻʶҹ ͧСͺѹùҨըӹǹ§硹 觼šзҾҡҡѹҡ

. ͹ (H2O) ջҳ % 㹺ҡȢѺǧʶҹ ͹Ӥ͹ʶҹ ͹¹ҡʶҹ˹աʶҹ˹ ͧ ͧ Դôٴ׹Ф¤͹ὧ (Latent heat) 觾ѧҹԴ ͹͹ШǡѺ͹͡䫴 ֧ѵ㹡ôٴ׹ѧԹô͡ҡš ͡ҡ͹ӡ蹵´ դö㹡з͹ʧҷԵѧԹô 鹼š͹˹ǨԹ

. ⫹ (O3) Դҡ

褧˭Ҿ;ҹҤ

褧繹 ǹͧ;ҹҤ 繾ѧáԴչӢ դѹ觡ѹСѹ Ƿ褧Ҷ֧˭ͧ;ҹҤ

ҹҤ繸ҵԼŹ ͧ 觹§٪š

ǹ褧ҴŹä 褧ҹӹäŧѧš 褧Ҩ֧˭ о褧繹äŧš ҹҤ֧ö չӡԹ վ褧 ҹҤöҹӷ˹

ҹҤ

ҹҤǡѺشó ѹ繤ԷҧԹ ҷҧǡѺоطʹ ǪҤ ҤǪ ҡǪ ֧;оطҶҨкǪТǪ繹Ҥ͹ ǹķͧҹ Ҿɢͧҹº͹ ҧչҹйѺѧ ѧ÷ҹ˹ҷ 齹 ѧâͧչ繸ҵط ѹҧͧѧ
龭ҹҤ ֧֡ شó

. Ը ͧ Ź

. Ծ¾ѧ ѧ觡ô ͧѹ

. ú٪
. Ըա ûԺѵ ¼,
. Եԭҳ س   

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